Mitochondria are the energy-producing organelles of cells. Mitochondrial dysfunctions link to various syndromes and diseases including myoclonic epilepsy and ragged-red fiber disease (MERRF), Leigh syndrome (LS), and Leber hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON). Primary mitochondrial diseases often result from mutations of mitochondrial genomes and nuclear genes that encode the mitochondrial components. However, complete intracellular correction of the mutated genetic parts relevant to mitochondrial structures and functions is technically challenging. Instead, there have been diverse attempts to provide corrected genetic materials with cells. In this review, we discuss recent novel physical, chemical and biological strategies, and methods to introduce genetic cargos into mitochondria of eukaryotic cells. Effective mitochondria-targeting gene delivery systems can reverse multiple mitochondrial disorders by enabling cells to produce functional mitochondrial components.
PMID: 30208599 PMCID: PMC6225103 DOI: 10.3390/molecules23092316